Aarhus University Seal / Aarhus Universitets segl

CARMA - CARbon sequestration by Greenland’s Marine forests in a warming Arctic

This research project aims to test the hypothesis that burial of carbon (C) exported from Arctic marine forests (seaweed & seagrass) provides a globally relevant, and growing, contribution to C-sequestration in marine sediments – using Greenland as a case study.

The project is funded by the Independent Research Fund of Denmark and led by researchers from Aarhus University’s Department of Bioscience and Department of Geoscience, in cooperation with researchers from King Abdullah University, Saudi Arabia, Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Coastal Research, Germany and Max Planck institute, Germany.



  • Bringloe T, Zaparenkov D, Starko S, Grant W, Vieira C, Kawai H, Hanyuda T; Filbee-Dexter K, Klimova A, Klochkova T, Krause-Jensen D, Olesen B, Verbruggen H. 2021. Whole genome sequencing reveals forgotten lineages and recurrent hybridization within the kelp genus Alaria (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology. Accepted
  • 122. Wassmann, P.F.J., Krause-Jensen D., Bluhm, B.A., Janout, M. Editorial: Towards a Unifying Pan-Arctic Perspective of the Contemporary and Future Arctic Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.678420.
  • Wassmann, P. F. J., Krause-Jensen, D., Janout, M. A., Bluhm, B. A., eds. (2021). Towards a Unifying Pan-Arctic Perspective of the Contemporary and Future Arctic Ocean. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88971-229-8
  • Thyrring J, Wegeberg S, Blicher ME, Krause-Jensen D, Høgslund S, Olesen B, Wiktor J Jr,  Mouritsen KN, Peck L, Sejr MK. Latitudinal patterns in intertidal ecosystem structure in West Greenland suggest resilience to climate change. Journal of Global Ecology and Biogeography. doi: 10.1111/ecog.05381
  • Bringloe TT,  Sauermann R, Krause-Jensen D, Olesen B, Klimova A, Klochkova TA, Verbruggen H. High-throughput sequencing of the kelp Alaria (Phaeophyceae) reveals epi-endobiotic associations, including a likely phaeophycean parasite. Journal of Phycology
  • Sarah B. Ørberg, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Nathan R. Geraldi, Alejandra Ortega, Rubén Díaz-Rúa, Carlos M. Duarte. Fingerprinting Arctic and North Atlantic Macroalgae with eDNA – Application and perspectives. In review at Environmental DNA, submitted Dec 2020.
  • Sejr MK, Mouritsen KN, Krause-Jensen D, Olesen B, Blicher M, Thyrring J. Small scale factors modify impacts of temperature, ice scour and waves and drive rocky intertidal community structure in a Greenland fjord. Frontiers in marine science.



  • Macreadie PI, Anton A, Raven JA, Beaumont N, Connolly RM, Friess DA, Kelleway JJ, Kennedy H, Kuwae T,
Lavery PS, Lovelock CE, Smale DA, Apostolaki ET, Atwood TB, Baldock J, Bianchi TS, Chmura GL, Eyre BD, Fourqurean JW, Hall-Spencer JM, Huxham M, Hendriks IE, Krause-Jensen D, Laffoley D, Luisetti T, Marbà N, Masque P, McGlathery KJ, Megonigal JP, Murdiyarso D, Russell BD, Santos R, Serrano O, Silliman BR, Watanabe K, Duarte CM. 2019. The Future of Blue Carbon Science. Nature Communications 10: 3998. doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11693-w (open access) (open access)
  • Ortega A, Geraldi NR, Alam I, Kamau AA, Acinas SG, Logares R, Gasol JM, Massana R, Krause-Jensen D, Duarte CM. 2019. Important contribution of macroalgae to oceanic carbon sequestration. Nature Geoscience. Doi: 10.1038/s41561-019-0421-8.
  • Krause-Jensen D, Sejr M, Bruhn A, Rasmussen MB, Christensen PB, Hansen JLS, Duarte CM, Bruntse G, Wegeberg S. 2019. Deep penetration of kelps offshore along the west coast of Greenland. Frontiers in Marine Science 6:375. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00375 (open access)
  • Queirós AM, Stephens N, Widdicombe S, Tait K, McCoy SJ, Ingels J, Rühl S, Airs R, Beesley A, Carnovale G, Cazenave1 P, Dashfield S, Hua E, Jones M, Lindeque P, McNeill CL, Nunes J, Parry H, Pascoe C, Widdicombe C, Smyth T, Atkinson A, Krause-Jensen D, Somerfield PJ. 2019. Connected macroalgal-sediment systems: blue carbon and foodwebs in the deep coastal ocean. Ecological Monographs, e01366. (open access)
  • Saderne, V., P. I. Macreadie, D. T. Maher, J. J. Middelburg, O. Serrano, H. Almahasheer, A. Arias-Ortiz, M. Cusack, B. D. Eyre, J. Fourqurean, H. Kennedy, D. Krause-Jensen, T. Kuwae, P. Lavery, C. E. Lovelock, N. Marba, P. Masqué, M. A. Mateo, I. Mazarrasa, K. J. McGlathery, M. P. J. Oreska, C. J. Sanders, I. R. Santos, J. M. Smoak, T. Tanaya, K. Watanabe, C. M. Duarte. 2019. Role of carbonate burial in “Blue Carbon” budgets. Nature communications. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08842-6. (open access)
  • Sanz-Martín M, Hendriks IE, Carstensen J, Marba N, Krause-Jensen D, Sejr MK, Duarte CM. 2019. Continuous photoperiod of the Artic summer stimulates the photosynthetic response of some marine macrophytes. Aquatic Botany 158: 103126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2019.06.005


  • Krause-Jensen D, Lavery P, Serrano O, Marbá N, Masque P, Duarte CM. 2018 Sequestration of macroalgal carbon: the elephant in the Blue Carbon room. Biol. Lett. 14: 20180236. dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0236 (open access)

Other Outreach


  • Krause-Jensen, D and Duarte, CM 2021. Climate change and the expansion of marine forests around Greenland’s coast. Extreme-E Global Legacy Workshop. Presentation at Kangerlussuaq 28. August 2021. (Presented by CM Duarte) https://www.extreme-e.com/en/legacy-projects/greenland
  • Krause-Jensen D. 2021. “Wild Macroalgae” Presentation at the virtual conference “Blue Carbon – a new frontier for conservation? Building ambition ahead of COP26” organized by the Blue Marine Foundation, 9. June 2021. https://www.bluemarinefoundation.com/projects/blue-carbon/ (Direct link to my presentation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1FSCDRQJ_o&t=29s; Direct link to online conference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ibg59z7Ua48&t=8s)
  • Ørberg, S. 2021. Fingerprint of Marine Forests in Arctic surface sediments. ASLO Aquatic Sciences meeting, On-line, June 22-27, 2021
  • Krause-Jensen D. 2021. Marine forests and blue carbon. Lecture Series 2021 - Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, On-line, February 5, 2021
  • Krause-Jensen, D. 2021. Fate of macroalgae in the natural habitat. The National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine’s (NASEM)  Workshop on Ocean-based CDR Opportunities and Challenges - Part 3: Ecosystem Recovery & Seaweed Cultivation. Links: A Research Strategy for Ocean Based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration, project website Board, you can sign up for our listserv here (in the “Connect with Us” box).   
  • Krause-Jensen D. 2021. ‘Changing seaweed along Greenland’s coasts and beyond and Blue Carbon perspectives’ ARCTOS on-line Colloquium “Macroalgae of high latitudes. 19.-20. January 2021.



  • Krause-Jensen D & Duarte CM. Coordination of the Euromarine foresight workshop: “The role of macroalgae in the global carbon cycle”, Carmen de la Victoria, Granada, April 7-10, 2019.
  • Krause-Jensen D & Duarte C. 2019. Macroalgae in the Blue Carbon context – including seaweed farming perspectives. Presentation at Blue Carbon International workshop in Copenhagen 9-13. September 2019.
  • Krause-Jensen D & Holmer M. 2019. Blue Forests in Denmark and Greenland – Status and knowledge gaps. Presentation at Blue Carbon International workshop in Copenhagen 9-13. September 2019.
  • Krause-Jensen D. 2019. Surveys of kelp and tidal algae in Greenland. Presentation at MARFOR (Marine forests) workshop, Faro, 27-28 February 2019.
  • Krause-Jensen D. 2019. The elephant in the blue carbon room - the role of macroalgae: status and aims. Final workshop for the Nordic blue carbon project, 21-22 November 2019, Miljødirektoratet, Helsfyr, Oslo
  • Krause-Jensen D. 2019. Nordic blue forests- Status, possibilities and challenges. Nordic ocean and climate workshop: Priorities for Nordic countries in International work. May 13-14 2019, Oslo.



Greenlandic marine forest of macroalgae (Sugar kelp). Photo: Scott Bennett ©